We should recall however that eudaimonia in this theory does not refer primarily to a feeling. Although he says nothing specific about the virtues, he does commend training for virtuous behavior DL VI MacIntyre distinguishes between the excellences or goods that are internal to a practice and those that are external to it.
In his Letter to Menoceus, Epicurus comments on flawed views of his ethical position and claims: Socrates puts moral considerations above all others. The result of these ways of approaching morality is that moral assessment falls on actions. They disagreed with each other about the relationship between rightness and goodness.
Moore opened up new issues for consideration and altered the focus of ethical discussion.
Once one recognizes i. Stephen Darwall et al  referred to "a genuinely new period in twentieth century ethics, the vigorous revival of metaethics coincidental with the emergence. They are both modeled on the forms. The different approaches are dealt with in order. While Plato clearly associates virtue and happiness, he never squarely faces the issue whether happiness may require other goods, e.
Finally, Epicurus is usually interpreted to have held a version of psychological hedonism — i.
It also includes a strong positive attitude toward bringing it about that each receives their due. In Republic V, Socrates returns to the issue of political rule by asking what change in actual cities would bring the ideal city closer to realization.
However, since Epicureans hold freedom from pain aponia and distress ataraxia gives the preferable pleasure, they emphasize tranquility ataraxia as the end of life. On the other hand, a good example of a contemporary essay in moral philosophy that is not a piece of metaethics is included among the readings at the end of the chapter, the piece by James Rachels — Epicurus, like his predecessors in the ancient moral tradition, identified the good as something psychological.
To have a feeling like anger at the right time, on the right occasion, towards the right people, for the right purpose and in the right manner is to feel the right amount, the mean between extremes of excess and deficiency; this is the mark of moral virtue a15— These thinkers are interested in what constitutes, e.
The intrinsic value of the virtues: Because only philosophers have this knowledge — an infallible grasp of goodness, beauty, and justice — they and only they are fit to be rulers in the city. Thus, sensations based on recollections, hope and fear in the context of mental states with regard to the past and future are much stronger than the bodily pleasure of the moment.
If a course of action is right, it must be because it is more productive of good than are alternative courses of action. Of course, Aristotle argues that excellent activity of the soul is intrinsically pleasurable Nicomachean Ethics a5.
But likewise, he adds, life is not worth living if that which is harmed by wrong-doing to adikon and benefited by the right — sc.
Stoics The Stoics are well known for their teaching that the good is to be identified with virtue.
Thus, slavery would be to the common good, and utilitarianism would require that it should be instituted. The part that obeys reason is that aspect of the soul, such as the appetites, that functions in a human being under the influence of reason.
The virtues, MacIntyre wrote, sustain us in a relevant kind of quest for the good. Moral Facts and Explanations. At this point he is ready to come back to moral virtue for it is concerned with feelings and actions to which feelings give risein which one can have excess, deficiency, or the mean.
To say that it is action-centered means that, as a theory of morality, it explains morality, to begin with, in terms of actions and their circumstances, and the ways in which actions are moral or immoral. Do moral facts and properties explain anything?.
Socrates says as something obvious to everyone that life is not worth living if that which is harmed by disease and benefited by health — i. They gloss the intrinsic value of justice as what value it has in the soul b-cwhat it does to the soul simply and immediately by its presence therein.
He said that what makes right actions right is that they produce more goodness than alternative actions. Ross held that the production of maximum good is not the only thing that makes an act right; some things are just simply our moral duty to do.
Therefore, there is constant interest in updating and enhancing a particular moral theory in order to make it compatible with the latest demands. If the principles selected are to be reasonable and justifiable, they must be selected through a procedure that is fair.
Thus, good persons reason well about plans, short term or long; and when they satisfy their appetites, and even when they have appetites, it is in conformity with reason.CONTEMPORARY ETHICAL THEORIES AND JURISPRUDENCE George Nakhnikian FOUR TYPES of ethical theory have been the ones most heatedly debated among analytic philosophers since the appearance in of G.
E. Moore's. Contemporary Ethical Theory Philosophers Contemporary ethical theory begins with G. E. Moore (–). Moore opened up new issues for consideration and altered the focus of ethical discussion.
Ancient Ethical Theory. First published Tue Aug 3, ; substantive revision Wed Aug 13, In their moral theories, the ancient philosophers depended on several important notions.
These reflections on virtue can provide an occasion for contrasting ancient moral theory and modern. Contemporary ethical theory begins with G.
E. Moore (–).
Moore opened up new issues for consideration and altered the focus of ethical discussion. Moore believed that the task of the ethical philosopher is to conduct a “general inquiry into what is good.”This seems reasonably straightforward, down to earth, and useful. This reader contains 72 classical and contemporary articles organized around 13 crucial issues in ethical theory: the nature of ethics, ethical relativism, ethical egoism and evolutionary ethics, value, utilitarianism, deontological ethics, virtue ethics, the fact/value problem, moral realism and skepticism, morality and self-interest, ethics /5(13).
The nature and justification of basic ethical concepts in the light of the chief ethical theories of 20th-century British and American philosophers. Consent of instructor required. One course / 3 units.Download